History matching pressure response functions from production data
Ibrahim, Mazher Hassan
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This dissertation presents several new techniques for the analysis of the long-term production performance of tight gas wells. The main objectives of this work are to determine pressure response function for long-term production for a the slightly compressible liquid case, to determine the original gas in place (OGIP) during pseudosteady state (PSS), to determine OGIP in the transient period, and to determine the effects of these parameters on linear flow in gas wells. Several methods are available in the industry to analyze the production performance of gas wells. One common method is superposition time. This method has the advantage of being able to analyze variable-rate and variable-pressure data, which is usually the nature of field data. However, this method has its shortcomings. In this work, simulation and field cases illustrate the shortcomings of superposition. I present a new normalized pseudotime plotting function for use in the superposition method to smooth field data and more accurately calculate OGIP. The use of this normalized pseudotime is particularly important in the analysis of highly depleted reservoirs with large change in total compressibility where the superposition errors are largest. The new tangent method presented here can calculate the OGIP with current reservoir properties for both constant rate and bottomhole flowing pressure (pwf) production. In this approach pressure-dependent permeability data can be integrated into a modified real gas pseudopressure,m(p), which linearizes the reservoir flow equations and provides correct values for permeability and skin factor. But if the customary real-gas pseudopressure, m(p) is used instead, erroneous values for permeability and skin factor will be calculated. This method uses an exponential equation form for permeability vs. pressure drop. Simulation and field examples confirm that the new correction factor for the rate dependent problem improves the linear model for both PSS and transient period, whether plotted on square-root of time or superposition plots.