Effective properties of three-phase electro-magneto-elastic multifunctional composite materials
Lee, Jae Sang
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Coupling between the electric field, magnetic field, and strain of composite materials is achieved when electro-elastic (piezoelectric) and magneto-elastic (piezomagnetic) particles are joined by an elastic matrix. Although the matrix is neither piezoelectric nor piezomagnetic, the strain field in the matrix couples the E field of the piezoelectric phase to the B field of the piezomagnetic phase. This three-phase electro-magneto-elastic composite should have greater ductility and formability than a two-phase composite in which E and B are coupled by directly bonding two ceramic materials with no compliant matrix. A finite element analysis and homogenization of a representative volume element is performed to determine the effective electric, magnetic, mechanical, and coupled-field properties of an elastic (epoxy) matrix reinforced with piezoelectric and piezomagnetic fibers as functions of the phase volume fractions, the fiber (or particle) shapes, the fiber arrangements in the unit cell, and the fiber material properties with special emphasis on the symmetry properties of the fibers and the poling directions of the piezoelectric and piezomagnetic fibers. The effective magnetoelectric moduli of this three-phase composite are, however, less than the effective magnetoelectric coefficients of a two-phase piezoelectric/piezomagnetic composite, because the epoxy matrix is not stiff enough to transfer significant strains between the piezomagnetic and piezoelectric fibers.