The susceptibility patterns of eight antimicrobial agents for potential treatment of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals
Daniels, Steven Antonn
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Rhodococcus equi is a common cause of severe pneumonia in foals, and is an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised humans. In combination, erythromycin and rifampin are the most commonly used antimicrobials in treating R. equi in foals. To provide reliable treatment, it is imperative to determine the mean inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of other antimicrobial agents in the event that certain strains of R. equi develop resistance to the current treatment. Several strains of R. equi have developed resistance to various antibiotics. In this study, R. equi strain 288 was completely resistant to rifampin with a MIC > 256ug/ml. The MICs of ethambutol, clarithromycin, azithromycin, isoniazide, ethionamide, rifampin, erythromycin, and linezolid of ninety-five R. equi isolates were also determined in this study. These isolates were obtained from the lungs and transtracheal washes of foals. In addition to these strains, three National Committee for Laboratory Clinical Standards (NCCLS) quality control strains were also tested: R. equi ATCC 6939, R. equi ATCC 33701, and S. pneumoniae 49619. Each drug was tested in triplicate and the MIC 50?s and MIC 90?s were determined for each drug. Ethambutol, isoniazide, and ethionamide were completely ineffective against R. equi. with MICs > 250ug/ml. Rhodococcus equi strains were more susceptible to clarithromycin (MIC 90 = 0.23 ug/ml) than to azithromycin (MIC 90 = 2.33 ug/ml), rifampicin (MIC 90 = 0.67ug/ml), erythromycin (MIC 90 = 1.2ug/ml), and linezolid (MIC 90 = 4ug/ml).