End-to-end Optimal Algorithms For Traffic Engineering, Failure Detection And Recovery In Connectionless Networks
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In this thesis we propose a novel scheme to achieve intra-domain Traffic Engineering (TE), Failure Detection and Recovery (FR) in connectionless networks. This scheme addresses rate adaptation, load balancing and stability issues of the OSPF protocol namely, network convergence times and route flapping. With the current default settings of the OSPF parameters, the network takes several tens of seconds to recover from a failure. The main component in this delay is the time required to detect the failure using the Hello protocol. Route flap is another undesirable phenomenon and needs to be eliminated to achieve greater stability and robustness in computer networks. Also, performing rate adaptation and load balancing at the edge routers without any feedback from the network core is a challenging task. In this thesis, we address the above issues with a scheme that does not require any modifications to the underlying routing protocols. We focus on the application of a set iv of distributed control laws on the edge routers in a connectionless network. The control laws provide optimal data rate adaptation and load balancing where multiple disjoint paths are available between an ingress-egress pair. The control laws require information of whether a forwarding path is congested or not for their traffic engineering operations. We have implemented a source inferred congestion detection scheme, to find congested paths and node/link failures along a forwarding path. The information inferred from this mechanism serves as input to the control laws to provide optimal rate adaptation and load balancing. The proposed approach endows the network with the important property of stability and robustness with respect to node/link failures. The congestion detection scheme also serves as a failure detection mechanism and thus helps to overcome the IGP convergence problem in OSPF. On the occurrence of a link or router breakdown, the congestion detection mechanism is capable of detecting the failure within a few milliseconds. This information is provided to the control laws, which reroute traffic away from the inoperative node/link to converge to the optimal allocation for the "reduced" network. In comparison, OSPF takes several tens of seconds for the failure detection and convergence process. Hence, this approach helps to get around the IGP convergence problem. Highly scalable TE and FR features are implemented on edge routers, based on these control laws and the congestion detection mechanism, without the involvement of the routers in the network core. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed approach under a variety of network scenarios. Results show that the convergence time reduces from few tens of seconds to the order of milliseconds. The average throughput is improved considerably due to dynamic rate adaptation and load balancing provided by the control laws.