# Browsing by Subject "leakage"

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Item Labyrinth Seal Leakage Equation(2010-07-14) Suryanarayanan, SaikishanShow more A seal is a component used in a turbomachine to reduce internal leakage of the working fluid and to increase the machine's efficiency. The stability of a turbomachine partially depends upon the rotodynamic coefficients of the seal. The integral control volume based rotodynamic coefficient prediction programs are no more accurate than the accuracy of the leakage mass flow rate estimation. Thus an accurate prediction of the mass flow rate through seals is extremely important, especially for rotodynamic analysis of turbomachinery. For labyrinth seals, which are widely used, the energy dissipation is achieved by a series of constrictions and cavities. When the fluid flows through the constriction (under each tooth), a part of the pressure head is converted into kinetic energy, which is dissipated through small scale turbulence-viscosity interaction in the cavity that follows. Therefore, a leakage flow rate prediction equation can be developed by comparing the seal to a series of orifices and cavities. Using this analogy, the mass flow rate is modeled as a function of the flow coefficient under each tooth and the carry over coefficient, which accounts for the turbulent dissipation of kinetic energy in a cavity. This work, based upon FLUENT CFD simulations, initially studies the influence of flow parameters, in addition to geometry, on the carry over coefficient of a cavity, developing a better model for the same. It is found that the Reynolds number and clearance to pitch ratios have a major influence and tooth width has a secondary influence on the carry over coefficient and models for the same were developed for a generic rectangular tooth on stator labyrinth seal. The discharge coefficient of the labyrinth seal tooth (with the preceding cavity) was found to be a function of the discharge coefficient of a single tooth (with no preceding cavity) and the carry over coefficient. The discharge coefficient of a single tooth is established as a function of the Reynolds number and width to clearance ratio of the tooth and a model for the same is developed. It is also verified that this model describes the discharge coefficient of the first tooth in the labyrinth seal. By comparing the coefficients of discharge of compressible flow to that of incompressible flow at the same Reynolds number, the expansion factor was found to depend only upon the pressure ratio and ratio of specific heats. A model for the same was developed. Thus using the developed models, it is possible to compute the leakage mass flow rate as well as the axial distribution of cavity pressure across the seal for known inlet and exit pressures. The model is validated against prior experimental data.Show more Item Minimizing and exploiting leakage in VLSI(2009-05-15) Jayakumar, NikhilShow more Power consumption of VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated) circuits has been growing at an alarmingly rapid rate. This increase in power consumption, coupled with the increasing demand for portable/hand-held electronics, has made power consumption a dominant concern in the design of VLSI circuits today. Traditionally dynamic (switching) power has dominated the total power consumption of VLSI circuits. However, due to process scaling trends, leakage power has now become a major component of the total power consumption in VLSI circuits. This dissertation explores techniques to reduce leakage, as well as techniques to exploit leakage currents through the use of sub-threshold circuits. This dissertation consists of two studies. In the first study, techniques to reduce leakage are presented. These include a low leakage ASIC design methodology that uses high VT sleep transistors selectively, a methodology that combines input vector control and circuit modification, and a scheme to find the optimum reverse body bias voltage to minimize leakage. As the minimum feature size of VLSI fabrication processes continues to shrink with each successive process generation (along with the value of supply voltage and therefore the threshold voltage of the devices), leakage currents increase exponentially. Leakage currents are hence seen as a necessary evil in traditional VLSI design methodologies. We present an approach to turn this problem into an opportunity. In the second study in this dissertation, we attempt to exploit leakage currents to perform computation. We use sub-threshold digital circuits and come up with ways to get around some of the pitfalls associated with sub-threshold circuit design. These include a technique that uses body biasing adaptively to compensate for Process, Voltage and Temperature (PVT) variations, a design approach that uses asynchronous micro-pipelined Network of Programmable Logic Arrays (NPLAs) to help improve the throughput of sub-threshold designs, and a method to find the optimum supply voltage that minimizes energy consumption in a circuit.Show more Item Seal inlet disturbance boundary conditions for rotordynamic models and influence of some off-design conditions on labyrinth rotordynamic instability(Texas A&M University, 2007-04-25) Xi, JinxiangShow more Systematic parametric studies were performed to better understand seal-inlet rotordynamics. A CFD-perturbation model was employed to compute the seal-inlet flow disturbance quantities. Seal inlet disturbance boundary condition correlations were proposed from the computed seal-inlet quantities using the important parameters. It was found that the cosine component of the seal-inlet swirl velocity disturbance W1C has a substantial impact on the cross-coupled stiffness, and that the correlations for W1C and W1S should be used to replace the historical guess that seal inlet W1C = 0 and W1S = 0. Also, an extremely precise relationship was found between the swirl disturbance W1C and the seal-inlet swirl velocity (????Rsh ?????? ????W0). Thus, the number of experiments or computer runs needed to determine the effect of spin speed, shaft radius and/or inlet swirl velocity on the cross-coupled stiffness is greatly reduced by plotting the simplified relationship of the cross-coupled stiffness against the swirl slip velocity. The benefits of using the new seal-inlet boundary condition correlations were assessed by implementing them into a CFD-perturbation model. Consistently improved agreement with measurements was obtained for both liquid annular seals and gas labyrinth seals. Further, the well-established CFD-perturbation model with new boundary condition correlations was employed to investigate the rotordynamics of two off-design situations. The first case considered the influence of labyrinth seal teeth damage on the performance and the rotordynamic characteristics of impeller eye seals in centrifugal compressors. The second case considered the influence of rotor-axial-shifting on rotordynamic forces for high-low labyrinth seals in steam turbines during the start-up and shut-down process. The results should provide useful information for labyrinth seal design and fault diagnosis of stability problems in turbines and compressors.Show more