# Browsing by Subject "dynamic programming"

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Item Cooperative control of autonomous underwater vehicles.(Texas A&M University, 2004-09-30) Savage, ElizabethShow more The proposed project is the simulation of a system to search for air vehicles which have splashed-down in the ocean. The system comprises a group of 10+ autonomous underwater vehicles, which cooperate in order to locate the aircraft. The search algorithm used in this system is based on a quadratic Newton method and was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The method has already been successfully applied to several two dimensional problems at Sandia. The original 2D algorithm was converted to 3D and tested for robustness in the presence of sensor error, position error and navigational error. Treating the robots as point masses, the system was found to be robust for all such errors. Several real-life adaptations were necessary. A round-robin communication strategy was implemented on the system to properly simulate the dissemination of information throughout the group. Time to convergence is delayed but the system still functioned adequately. Once simulations for the point masses had been exhausted, the dynamics of the robots were included. The robot equations of motion were described using Kane's equations. Path-planning was investigated using optimal control methods. The Variational Calculus approach was attempted using a line search tool "fsolve" found in Matlab and a Genetic Algorithm. A dynamic programming technique was also investigated using a method recently developed by Sandia National Laboratories. The Dynamic Programming with Interior Points (DPIP) method was a very effcient method for path planning and performed well in the presence of system constraints. Finally all components of the system were integrated. The motion of the robot exactly matched the motion of the particles, even when subjected to the same robustness tests carried out on the point masses. This thesis provides exciting developments for all types of cooperative projects.Show more Item Multi-period optimization of pavement management systems(Texas A&M University, 2004-09-30) Yoo, JaewookShow more The purpose of this research is to develop a model and solution methodology for selecting and scheduling timely and cost-effective maintenance, rehabilitation, and reconstruction activities (M & R) for each pavement section in a highway network and allocating the funding levels through a finite multi-period horizon within the constraints imposed by budget availability in each period, frequency availability of activities, and specified minimum pavement quality requirements. M & R is defined as a chronological sequence of reconstruction, rehabilitation, and major/minor maintenance, including a "do nothing" activity. A procedure is developed for selecting an M & R activity for each pavement section in each period of a specified extended planning horizon. Each activity in the sequence consumes a known amount of capital and generates a known amount of effectiveness measured in pavement quality. The effectiveness of an activity is the expected value of the overall gains in pavement quality rating due to the activity performed on a highway network over an analysis period. It is assumed that the unused portion of the budget for one period can be carried over to subsequent periods. Dynamic Programming (DP) and Branch-and-Bound (B-and-B) approaches are combined to produce a hybrid algorithm for solving the problem under consideratioin. The algorithm is essentially a DP approach in the sense that the problem is divided into smaller subproblems corresponding to each single period problem. However, the idea of fathoming partial solutions that could not lead to an optimal solution is incorporated within the algorithm to reduce storage and computational requirements in the DP frame using the B-and-B approach. The imbedded-state approach is used to reduce a multi-dimensional DP to a one-dimensional DP. For bounding at each stage, the problem is relaxed in a Lagrangean fashion so that it separates into longest-path network model subproblems. The values of the Lagrangean multipliers are found by a subgradient optimization method, while the Ford-Bellman network algorithm is employed at each iteration of the subgradient optimization procedure to solve the longest-path network problem as well as to obtain an improved lower and upper bound. If the gap between lower and upper bound is sufficiently small, then we may choose to accept the best known solutions as being sufficiently close to optimal and terminate the algorithm rather than continue to the final stage.Show more