# Browsing by Subject "Numerical Simulation"

Now showing 1 - 5 of 5

###### Results Per Page

###### Sort Options

Item Experimental and Numerical Study of Polymer Scratch Behavior(2010-10-12) Jiang, HanShow more As part of a larger effort to understand the fundamental knowledge of polymer scratch behavior, this dissertation is focused on both experimental study and numerical analysis of scratch deformation of a broad range of polymers, with an emphasis on the mechanical understanding of how the scratch-induced damage is formed. An instrumented progressive load scratch method recommended by ASTM/ISO standards was adopted for the experimental work. The commercial finite element (FE) method package ABAQUS was employed as a numerical simulation tool to describe the stress-strain fields, and it analyzes the deformation mechanisms during the scratch process. A thorough parametric study has been performed to assess the influence of material parameters and surface properties, such as Young's modulus, yield strength, and friction coefficient, on the polymer scratch behavior. Upon investigation of the scratch behaviors of a broad range of polymer materials, various kinds of scratch damage features are identified and correlated with the mechanical characteristics of the polymers. A generalized scratch damage mechanism map for polymers is presented. Correlation between different material types and scratch damage mechanisms is made. It is found that both the material characteristics and the stress state exerted on the scratched surface are responsible for the observed scratch damage mechanisms. The phenomenological deduction of the scratch damage process based on the stick-slip mechanism is established. A more realistic material law for the scratch analysis is also provided. To evaluate the polymer resistance against scratch visibility quantitatively, an entirely new automated on-set scratch visibility determination methodology is developed based on typical visual characteristics of human eyes. Its application on the evaluation of mar and abrasion of polymer is also explored. This new methodology can quantify polymer scratch resistance consistently and reliably regardless of the sample surface characteristics and color.Show more Item Implementation of B-splines in a Conventional Finite Element Framework(2010-01-16) Owens, Brian C.Show more The use of B-spline interpolation functions in the finite element method (FEM) is not a new subject. B-splines have been utilized in finite elements for many reasons. One reason is the higher continuity of derivatives and smoothness of B-splines. Another reason is the possibility of reducing the required number of degrees of freedom compared to a conventional finite element analysis. Furthermore, if B-splines are utilized to represent the geometry of a finite element model, interfacing a finite element analysis program with existing computer aided design programs (which make extensive use of B-splines) is possible. While B-splines have been used in finite element analysis due to the aforementioned goals, it is difficult to find resources that describe the process of implementing B-splines into an existing finite element framework. Therefore, it is necessary to document this methodology. This implementation should conform to the structure of conventional finite elements and only require exceptions in methodology where absolutely necessary. One goal is to implement B-spline interpolation functions in a finite element framework such that it appears very similar to conventional finite elements and is easily understandable by those with a finite element background. The use of B-spline functions in finite element analysis has been studied for advantages and disadvantages. Two-dimensional B-spline and standard FEM have been compared. This comparison has addressed the accuracy as well as the computational efficiency of B-spline FEM. Results show that for a given number of degrees of freedom, B-spline FEM can produce solutions with lower error than standard FEM. Furthermore, for a given solution time and total analysis time B-spline FEM will typically produce solutions with lower error than standard FEM. However, due to a more coupled system of equations and larger elemental stiffness matrix, B-spline FEM will take longer per degree of freedom for solution and assembly times than standard FEM. Three-dimensional B-spline FEM has also been validated by the comparison of a three-dimensional model with plane-strain boundary conditions to an equivalent two-dimensional model using plane strain conditions.Show more Item Numerical Investigation of Fractured Reservoir Response to Injection/Extraction Using a Fully Coupled Displacement Discontinuity Method(2011-10-21) Lee, ByungtarkShow more In geothermal reservoirs and unconventional gas reservoirs with very low matrix permeability, fractures are the main routes of fluid flow and heat transport, so the fracture permeability change is important. In fact, reservoir development under this circumstance relies on generation and stimulation of a fracture network. This thesis presents numerical simulation of the response of a fractured rock to injection and extraction considering the role of poro-thermoelasticity and joint deformation. Fluid flow and heat transport in the fracture are treated using a finite difference method while the fracture and rock matrix deformation are determined using the displacement discontinuity method (DDM). The fractures response to fluid injection and extraction is affected both by the induced stresses as well as by the initial far-field stress. The latter is accounted for using the non-equilibrium condition, i.e., relaxing the assumption that the rock joints are in equilibrium with the in-situ stress state. The fully coupled DDM simulation has been used to carry out several case studies to model the fracture response under different injection/extractions, in-situ stresses, joint geometries and properties, for both equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions. The following observations are made: i) Fluid injection increases the pressure causing the joint to open. For non-isothermal injection, cooling increases the fracture aperture drastically by inducing tensile stresses. Higher fracture aperture means higher conductivity. ii) In a single fracture under constant anisotropic in-situ stress (non-equilibrium condition), permanent shear slip is encountered on all fracture segments when the shear strength is overcome by shear stress in response to fluid injection. With cooling operation, the fracture segments in the vicinity of the injection point are opened due to cooling-induced tensile stress and injection pressure, and all the fracture segments experience slip. iii) Fluid pressure in fractures increases in response to compression. The fluid compressibility and joint stiffness play a role. iv) When there are injection and extraction in fractured reservoirs, the cooler fluid flows through the fracture channels from the injection point to extraction well extracting heat from the warmer reservoir matrix. As the matrix cools, the resulting thermal stress increases the fracture apertures and thus increases the fracture conductivity. v) Injection decreases the amount of effective stress due to pressure increase in fracture and matrix near a well. In contrast, extraction increases the amount of effective stress due to pressure drop in fracture and matrix.Show more Item Numerical Simulation of Flow Field Inside a Squeeze Film Damper and the Study of the Effect of Cavitation on the Pressure Distribution(2012-02-14) Khandare, Milind NandkumarShow more Squeeze Film Dampers (SFDs) are employed in high-speed Turbomachinery, particularly aircraft jet engines, to provide external damping. Despite numerous successful applications, it is widely acknowledged that the theoretical models used for SFD design are either overly simplified or incapable of taking into account all the features such as cavitation, air entrainment etc., affecting the performance of a SFD. On the other hand, experimental investigation of flow field and dynamic performance of SFDs can be expensive and time consuming. The current work simulates the flow field inside the dynamically deforming annular gap of a SFD using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code Fluent and compares the results to the experimental data of San Andr?s and Delgado. The dynamic mesh capability of Fluent and a User Defined Function (UDF) was used to replicate the deforming gap and motion of the rotor respectively. Two dimensional simulations were first performed with different combinations of rotor whirl speed, operating pressures and with and without incorporating the cavitation model. The fluid used in the simulations was ISO VG 2 Mobil Velocite no. 3. After the successful use of the cavitation model in the 2D case, a 3D model with the same dimensions as the experimental setup was built and meshed. The simulations were run for a whirl speed of 50 Hz and an orbit amplitude of 74 ?m with no through flow and an inlet pressure of 31kPa (gauge). The resulting pressures at the mid-span of the SFD land were obtained. They closely agreed with those obtained experimentally by San Andr?s and Delgado.Show more Item Numerical simulation of two-phase flow in discrete fractures using Rayleigh-Ritz finite element method(Texas A&M University, 2004-09-30) Kaul, Sandeep P.Show more Spontaneous imbibition plays a very important role in the displacement mechanism of non-wetting fluid in naturally fractured reservoirs. We developed a new 2D two-phase finite element numerical model, as available commercial simulators cannot be used to model small-scale experiments with different boundary conditions as well as complex boundary conditions such as fractures and vugs. Starting with the basic equation of fluid flow, we derived the non-linear diffusion saturation equation. This equation cannot be put in weighted-integral weak variational form and hence Rayleigh-Ritz finite element method (FEM) cannot be applied. Traditionally, the way around it is to use higher order interpolation functions and use Galerkin FEM or reduce the differentiability requirement and use Mixed FEM formulation. Other FEM methods can also be used, but iterative nature of those methods makes them unsuitable for solving large-scale field problems. But if we truncate the non-linear terms and decouple the dependent variables, from the spatial as well as the temporal domains of the primary variable to solve them analytically, the non-linear FEM problem reduces to a simple weighted integral form, which can be put into its corresponding weak form. The advantage of using Rayleigh-Ritz method is that it has immediate effect on the computation time required to solve a particular problem apart from incorporating complex boundary conditions. We compared our numerical models with the analytical solution of this diffusion equation. We validated the FDM numerical model using X-Ray Tomography (CT) experimental data from the single-phase spontaneous imbibition experiment, where two simultaneously varying parameters of weight gain and CT water saturation were used and then went ahead and compared the results of FEM model to that of FDM model. A two-phase field size example was taken and results from a commercial simulator were compared to the FEM model to bring out the limitations of this approach.Show more