# Browsing by Subject "Dynamic programming"

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Item A Development of Design and Control Methodology for Next Generation Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle(2013-01-28) Lai, LinShow more Commercially available Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) have been around for more than ten years. However, their market share remains small. Focusing only on the improvement of fuel economy, the design tends to reduce the size of the internal combustion engine in the HEV, and uses the electrical drive to compensate for the power gap between the load demand and the engine capacity. Unfortunately, the low power density and the high cost of the combined electric motor drive and battery packs dictate that the HEV has either worse performance or much higher price than the conventional vehicle. In this research, a new design philosophy for parallel HEV is proposed, which uses a full size engine to guarantee the vehicle performance at least as good as the conventional vehicle, and hybridizes with an electrical drive in parallel to improve the fuel economy and performance beyond the conventional cars. By analyzing the HEV fuel economy versus the increasing of the electrical drive power on typical driving conditions, the optimal hybridization electric power capacity is determined. Thus, the full size engine HEV shows significant improvement in fuel economy and performance, with relatively short cost recovery period. A new control strategy, which optimizes the fuel economy of parallel configured charge sustained hybrid electric vehicles, is proposed in the second part of this dissertation. This new approach is a constrained engine on-off strategy, which has been developed from the two extreme control strategies of maximum SOC and engine on-off, by taking their advantages and overcoming their disadvantages. A system optimization program using dynamic programming algorithm has been developed to calibrate the control parameters used in the developed control strategy, so that the control performance can be as close to the optimal solution as possible. In order to determine the sensitivity of the new control strategy to different driving conditions, a passenger car is simulated on different driving cycles. The performances of the vehicle with the new control strategy are compared with the optimal solution obtained on each driving condition with the dynamic programming optimization. The simulation result shows that the new control strategy always keeps its performance close to the optimal one, as the driving condition changes.Show more Item A dynamic decision model for a single-activity manufacturing firm, under competition(Texas Tech University, 1977-05) Thongprasert, Sirichan PrasatkulShow more Not availableShow more Item Adaptive critic designs and their applications(Texas Tech University, 1997-12) Prokhorov, Danil VShow more NOT AVAILABLEShow more Item Algorithms and data structures for cache-efficient computation: theory and experimental evaluation(2007-08) Chowdhury, Rezaul Alam; Ramachandran, VijayaShow more Item Continuous state Q-learning(Texas Tech University, 1999-05) Alcorn, Cristy MicheleShow more Q-learning is a solution technique developed to solve classical Markov Decision Processes, MDPs. Markov Decision Processes are models for sequential decision making problems and address many classical control problems. In Chapter I, this paper discusses the model and some standard solution techniques used in Markov Decision Processes and its limitations [6]. Q-learning was developed by Watkins to broaden the scope of problems that dynamic programming, MDP techniques, can solve. Classical Q-learning is a model free solution technique and is therefore able to address a variety of poorly modeled decision problems which were unsolvable using standard MDP techniques. Watkins development of Q-learning is based on Markov Decision Processes with discrete action and state spaces. The model and algorithm associated with classical Q-learning are described in Chapter II. To extend the set of problems which can be addressed using Q-learning, Chapter III addresses solution techniques for poorly modeled problems with continuous state and/or action spaces. The model is slightly altered and the algorithm is adjusted to account for the continuous state and action spaces. Numerical example show that continuous Q-learning does determine the optimal policy over time. Ongoing research is being carried on to improve both the current classical Q-learning method and to prove the convergence in the continuous case.Show more Item Contract-driven data structure repair : a novel approach for error recovery(2014-05) Nokhbeh Zaeem, Razieh; Khurshid, SarfrazShow more Software systems are now pervasive throughout our world. The reliability of these systems is an urgent necessity. A large degree of research effort on increasing software reliability is dedicated to requirements, architecture, design, implementation and testing---activities that are performed before system deployment. While such approaches have become substantially more advanced, software remains buggy and failures remain expensive. We take a radically different approach to reliability from previous approaches, namely contract-driven data structure repair for runtime error recovery, where erroneous executions of deployed software are corrected on-the-fly using rich behavioral contracts. Our key insight is to transform the software contract---which gives a high level description of the expected behavior---to an efficient implementation which repairs the erroneous data structures in the program state upon an error. To improve efficiency, scalability, and effectiveness of repair, in addition to rich behavioral contracts, we leverage the current erroneous state, dynamic behavior of the program, as well as repair history and abstraction. A core technical problem our approach to repair addresses is construction of structurally complex data that satisfy desired properties. We present a novel structure generation technique based on dynamic programming---a classic optimization approach---to utilize the recursive nature of the structures. We use our technique for constraint-based testing. It provides better scalability than previous work. We applied it to test widely-used web browsers and found some known and unknown bugs. Our use of dynamic programming in structure generation opens a new future direction to tackle the scalability problem of data structure repair. This research advances our ability to develop correct programs. For programs that already have contracts, error recovery using our approach can come at a low cost. The same contracts can be used for systematically testing code before deployment using existing as well as our new techniques. Thus, we enable a novel unification of software verification and error recovery.Show more Item The design of feedback channels for wireless networks : an optimization-theoretic view(2011-08) Ganapathy, Harish; Caramanis, Constantine; Shakkottai, Sanjay; Andrews, Jeffrey G.; Vishwanath, Sriram; Hasenbein, JohnShow more The fundamentally fluctuating nature of the strength of a wireless link poses a significant challenge when seeking to achieve reliable communication at high data rates. Common sense, supported by information theory, tells us that one can move closer towards achieving higher data rates if the transmitter is provided with a priori knowledge of the channel. Such channel knowledge is typically provided to the transmitter by a feedback channel that is present between the receiver and the transmitter. The quality of information provided to the transmitter is proportional to the bandwidth of this feedback channel. Thus, the design of feedback channels is a key aspect in enabling high data rates. In the past, these feedback channels have been designed locally, on a link-by-link basis. While such an approach can be globally optimal in some cases, in many other cases, this is not true. In this thesis, we identify various settings in wireless networks, some already a part of existing standards, others under discussion in future standards, where the design of feedback channels is a problem that requires global, network-wide optimization. In general, we propose the treatment of feedback bandwidth as a network-wide resource, as the next step en route to achieving Gigabit wireless. Not surprisingly, such a global optimization initiative naturally leads us to the important issue of computational efficiency. Computational efficiency is critical from the point-of-view of a network provider. A variety of optimization techniques are employed in this thesis to solve the large combinatorial problems that arise in the context of feedback allocation. These include dynamic programming, sub-modular function maximization, convex relaxations and compressed sensing. A naive algorithm to solve these large combinatorial problems would typically involve searching over a exponential number of possibilities to find the optimal feedback allocation. As a general theme, we identify and exploit special application-specific structure to solve these problems optimally with reduced complexity. Continuing this endeavour, we search for more intricate structure that enables us to propose approximate solutions with significantly-reduced complexity. The accompanying analysis of these algorithms studies the inherent trade-offs between accuracy, efficiency and the required structure of the problem.Show more Item Evaluation of basis functions for generating approximate linear programming (ALP) average cost solutions and policies for multiclass queueing networks(2012-05) Gurfein, Kate Elizabeth; Hasenbein, John J.; Morton, David P.Show more The average cost of operating a queueing network depends on several factors such as the complexity of the network and the service policy used. Approximate linear programming (ALP) is a method that can be used to compute an accurate lower bound on the optimal average cost as well as generate policies to be used in operating the network. These average cost solutions and policies are dependent on the type of basis function used in the ALP. In this paper, the ALP average cost solutions and policies are analyzed for twelve networks with four different types of basis functions (quadratic, linear, pure exponential, and mixed exponential). An approximate bound on the optimality gap between the ALP average cost solution and the optimal average cost solution is computed for each system, and the size of this bound is determined relative to the ALP average cost solution. Using the same set of networks, the performance of ALP generated policies are compared to the performance of the heuristic policies first-buffer-first-served (FBFS), last-buffer-first-served (LBFS), highest-queue-first-served (HQFS), and random-queue-first-served (RQFS). In general, ALP generated average cost solutions are considerably smaller than the simulated average cost under the corresponding policy, and therefore the approximate bounds on the optimality gaps are quite large. This bound increases with the complexity of the queueing network. Some ALP generated policies are not stabilizing policies for their corresponding networks, especially those produced using pure exponential and mixed exponential basis functions. For almost all systems, at least one of the heuristic policies results in mean average cost less than or nearly equal to the smallest mean average cost of all ALP generated policies in simulation runs. This means that generally there exists a heuristic policy which can perform as well as or better than any ALP generated policy. In conclusion, a useful bound on the optimality gap between the ALP average cost solution and the optimal average cost solution cannot be computed with this method. Further, heuristic policies, which are more computationally tractable than ALP generated policies, can generally match or exceed the performance of ALP generated policies, and thus computing such policies is often unnecessary for realizing cost benefits in queueing networks.Show more Item Harnessing demand flexibility to minimize cost, facilitate renewable integration, and provide ancillary services(2014-08) Kefayati, Mahdi; Baldick, RossShow more Renewable energy is key to a sustainable future. However, the intermittency of most renewable sources and lack of sufficient storage in the current power grid means that reliable integration of significantly more renewables will be a challenging task. Moreover, increased integration of renewables not only increases uncertainty, but also reduces the fraction of traditional controllable generation capacity that is available to cope with supply-demand imbalances and uncertainties. Less traditional generation also means less rotating mass that provides very short term, yet very important, kinetic energy storage to the system and enables mitigation of the frequency drop subsequent to major contingencies but before controllable generation can increase production. Demand, on the other side, has been largely regarded as non-controllable and inelastic in the current setting. However, there is strong evidence that a considerable portion of the current and future demand, such as electric vehicle load, is flexible. That is, the instantaneous power delivered to it needs not to be bound to a specific trajectory. In this thesis, we focus on harnessing demand flexibility as a key to enabling more renewable integration and cost reduction. We start with a data driven analysis of the potential of flexible demands, particularly plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) load. We first show that, if left unmanaged, these loads can jeopardize grid reliability by exacerbating the peaks in the load profile and increasing the negative correlation of demand with wind energy production. Then, we propose a simple local policy with very limited information and minimal coordination that besides avoiding undesired effects, has the positive side-effect of substantially increasing the correlation of flexible demand with wind energy production. Such local policies could be readily implemented as modifications to existing "grid friendly" charging modes of plug-in electric vehicles. We then propose improved localized charging policies that counter balance intermittency by autonomously responding to frequency deviations from the nominal frequency and show that PEV load can offer a substantial amount of such ancillary services. Next, we consider the case where real-time prices are employed to provide incentives for demand response. We consider a flexible load under such a pricing scheme and obtain the optimal policy for responding to stochastic price signals to minimize the expected cost of energy. We show that this optimal policy follows a multi-threshold form and propose a recursive method to obtain these thresholds. We then extend our results to obtain optimal policies for simultaneous energy consumption and ancillary service provision by flexible loads as well as optimal policies for operation of storage assets under similar real-time stochastic prices. We prove that the optimal policy in all these cases admits a computationally efficient form. Moreover, we show that while optimal response to prices reduces energy costs, it will result in increased volatility in the aggregate demand which is undesirable. We then discuss how aggregation of flexible loads can take us a step further by transforming the loads to controllable assets that help maintain grid reliability by counterbalancing the intermittency due to renewables. We explore the value of load flexibility in the context of a restructured electricity market. To this end, we introduce a model that economically incentivizes the load to reveal its flexibility and provides cost-comfort trade-offs to the consumers. We establish the performance of our proposed model through evaluation of the price reductions that can be provided to the users compared to uncontrolled and uncoordinated consumption. We show that a key advantage of aggregation and coordination is provision of "regulation" to the system by load, which can account for a considerable price reduction. The proposed scheme is also capable of preventing distribution network overloads. Finally, we extend our flexible load coordination problem to a multi-settlement market setup and propose a stochastic programming approach in obtaining day-ahead market energy purchases and ancillary service sales. Our work demonstrates the potential of flexible loads in harnessing renewables by affecting the load patterns and providing mechanisms to mitigate the inherent intermittency of renewables in an economically efficient manner.Show more Item State reduction in a dynamic programming solution to the capacitated dynamic lot size inventory problem(Texas Tech University, 1977-08) Burton, Jonathan SShow more Not availableShow more